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May 16, 2023
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Crypto accounting in the UK: Tips for the United Kingdom cryptocurrency accountant

Explore the intricacies of cryptocurrency accounting in the UK. Understand tax implications, blockchain's role, and tips for crypto accountants.

Table of Contents

In the United Kingdom, cryptocurrency accounting and taxation are primarily governed by the Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC). The treatment of cryptocurrency for accounting purposes in the UK depends on the nature of the transactions and the specific use of the cryptocurrency. As per HMRC guidelines, all cryptocurrencies must be accounted for in cash or GBP. For more information, refer to the HMRC manual regarding treating crypto-assets for individuals.

Blockchain and Crypto Accountants: The Future of Cryptocurrency Accounting in the UK

The convergence of blockchain technology and accountancy, more commonly called "crypto accounting," is a continuously evolving field, especially in the United Kingdom. The interplay between these two technologies sets a new standard for transparency, efficiency, and security in the business and financial world.

Blockchain technology is a type of Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) that enables recording transactions across multiple computers. It provides an immutable record of transactions, making it a potent tool for crypto accountants. As a result, blockchain accounting allows for greater transparency and a reduced risk of fraud or financial manipulation.

Crypto accountants in the UK are leveraging blockchain technology in several ways. First, blockchain facilitates real-time financial auditing, an aspect that is increasingly critical in the volatile world of cryptocurrencies. It allows accountants to track, verify, and record transactions almost instantly, reducing the likelihood of discrepancies or inaccuracies.

Secondly, blockchain's inherent transparency is a boon for regulatory compliance. Given that the UK's regulatory environment for cryptocurrencies is still developing, having a transparent and tamper-proof record-keeping system can significantly simplify the process of regulatory reporting and compliance for crypto accountants.

Moreover, blockchain technology can also automate numerous accounting processes, reducing the time and effort required for routine tasks. For example, smart contracts, which contracts that execute automatically with the terms of the agreement directly written into code, can automate processes such as balance confirmations, thereby freeing up time for crypto accountants to focus on more strategic aspects of their work.

However, the use of blockchain in crypto accounting has its challenges. Accountants must be adept at managing and interpreting vast amounts of data from blockchain transactions. In addition, given the rapid pace of technological change, staying up-to-date with the latest developments in blockchain technology and crypto regulations is a must for any crypto accountant in the UK.

As blockchain continues to redefine the accountancy landscape, it is essential for crypto accountants in the UK to adapt to this new technology. The future of cryptocurrency accountancy is likely to be defined by how effectively accountants can leverage blockchain's potential to enhance transparency, efficiency, and regulatory compliance in their work.

As a result, the UK's crypto asset accounting landscape is evolving in tandem with these technological advancements, positioning the UK as a potential global leader in blockchain-based crypto accounting practices.

Now, let's delve a little deeper into how cryptocurrency accounting is treated in the UK:

United Kingdom Business and Corporations:

Corporations holding crypto as an investment or for trading purposes must tread carefully, given the highly volatile nature of cryptocurrencies. In addition, cryptocurrency, whether it be Bitcoin, Ethereum, or any other digital currency, is typically treated as an intangible asset or a financial instrument. This means that the principles of accounting for financial assets and liabilities or intangible assets apply. 

The recognition of crypto transactions in the financial statements must follow the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) or the UK Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (UK GAAP). These accounting frameworks provide guidelines on how to value these assets, recognize income and expenses, and disclose related information. 

Companies are required to recognize gains or losses on the disposal or revaluation of cryptocurrencies. This requirement means that a company must assess the fair value of its crypto holdings at each reporting date. If the fair value has changed compared to the previous reporting period, the company would recognize a gain or loss. These gains or losses affect the corporation tax payable, and hence, proper accounting is crucial for accurate crypto tax compliance. Therefore, it is important to stay informed about changes in regulations. Visit the HMRC website to get up-to-date information on Cryptoassets regarding businesses.


For individuals, the treatment of crypto for tax purposes is no less complex. It largely depends on the nature of the transactions. For instance, if an individual buys cryptocurrency as an investment and later sells it at a higher price, any profit made is generally subject to Capital Gains Tax (CGT). 

HMRC considers cryptocurrencies as 'chargeable assets' for CGT purposes, similar to shares or property. This means that if the total gains from selling all chargeable assets, including cryptocurrencies, exceed the annual tax-free allowance (known as the 'annual exempt amount'), the individual would need to pay CGT on the excess gains.

However, if an individual is trading cryptocurrencies actively, that activity might be considered as carrying on a trade. In such a case, the profits from the trades could be subject to Income Tax instead of CGT. The distinction between casual investment and active trading can be complex and depends on factors such as the frequency and nature of transactions, level of organization, and intention to make a profit.

As an accountant, you will find that cryptocurrency accounting in the UK involves numerous complexities and nuances. As a result, both corporations and individuals need to navigate carefully, keeping abreast of the evolving regulatory landscape. For more information, refer to the HMRC manual regarding the treatment of cryptoassets for individuals.

Some highlights on how cryptocurrency accounting is treated in the UK:


Value Added Tax (VAT) applies to goods and services bought and sold using cryptocurrencies, similar to transactions made using fiat currency. However, exchanging cryptocurrencies for other cryptocurrencies or fiat currencies is considered a financial service, which is exempt from VAT.

Cryptocurrencies Mining: 

Cryptocurrency mining can be treated as a trade or as miscellaneous income, depending on the scale and intention of the mining activities. If mining activities are considered a trade, the profits are subject to Income Tax and National Insurance contributions. In the case of miscellaneous income, the profits are subject to Income Tax only.


Keeping track of your cryptocurrency transactions is very important for accurate crypto tax reporting. Ensure that you maintain records of the date and value of each transaction, whether it's a purchase, sale, trade, or mining income. Additionally, track the cost basis of each cryptocurrency you own to calculate gains or losses correctly. These records should be kept for at least six years, as required by HMRC.

Loss relief: 

If you realize a loss on the disposal of cryptocurrency, you may be able to claim loss relief against your other capital gains or carry the loss forward to offset future gains. Make sure you report these losses to HMRC to claim the appropriate relief.

Airdrops and hard forks: 

Cryptocurrency airdrops and hard forks can create additional crypto tax implications. Typically, airdrops are considered miscellaneous income and are subject to Income Tax, while hard forks may create a new cost basis for the resulting cryptocurrency assets. Therefore, please keep track of these events and their impact on your cryptocurrency holdings to ensure accurate crypto tax reporting.

Crypto-to-crypto transactions: 

In the UK, exchanging one cryptocurrency for another is considered a taxable event. Therefore, you need to calculate the gain or loss arising from each crypto-to-crypto transaction and report it on your tax return.

The 30-day rule:

The "30-day rule," also known as the "bed and breakfasting rule," is a rule in the UK tax system designed to prevent 'wash sales'. A wash sale refers to the sale of an asset (shares or other securities) at a loss and the subsequent repurchase of the same or a similar asset shortly thereafter. This technique is often used to establish a capital loss for tax purposes without significantly altering one's investment position.

In the context of cryptocurrency, the 30-day rule applies to the disposal and repurchase of the same type of cryptocurrency within a 30-day period. If you sell or dispose of a cryptocurrency and then buy the same type of cryptocurrency within 30 days, the acquisition cost for tax purposes isn't the original purchase price, but rather the price at which you repurchased it. This rule is designed to prevent people from 'selling' their cryptocurrency to realize a loss (and reduce their capital gains tax) and then immediately buying it back at a similar price.

It's important to note that this rule applies to each individual type of cryptocurrency separately. For example, if you sell Bitcoin and buy Ethereum within 30 days, this rule doesn't apply because they are different types of cryptocurrency. However, if you sell Bitcoin and buy Bitcoin within 30 days, then the 30-day rule would apply.

As always, due to the complexities involved, it's advisable to consult with a tax professional or accountant with experience in cryptocurrency transactions to ensure accurate compliance with HMRC's rules and regulations.

Cryptocurrency Tax planning: 

As with any other investments, crypto tax planning can help you minimize your tax liability from cryptocurrency transactions. Consider seeking professional financial advice from a cryptocurrency tax advisor or accountant experienced in cryptocurrency taxation to ensure you comply with regulations and take advantage of any available tax reliefs.

Foreign holdings accounts: 

If you hold cryptocurrencies in foreign exchanges or wallets, you may be required to report these holdings to HMRC, depending on the total value. Be aware of the reporting requirements for foreign-held assets to avoid penalties for non-disclosure.

Employment income paid in cryptocurrency: 

If you receive employment income in the form of cryptocurrency, it is essential to report this income on your tax return. This is because the value of the cryptocurrency at the time of receipt is subject to Income Tax and National Insurance contributions. Employers who pay their employees in cryptocurrency should also ensure they comply with payroll regulations and deduct the appropriate tax and National Insurance contributions.

Staking and lending: 

Participating in staking or lending activities with your cryptocurrency holdings can generate additional income, which is subject to crypto tax. Keep track of your staking rewards or interest income from lending, as these amounts need to be reported on your tax return and may be subject to Income Tax or your Capital Gains Tax. It all depends on the nature of the income.

Charitable donations accountancy: 

Donating cryptocurrency to a registered charity in the UK can provide tax benefits, such as reducing your taxable income or capital gains liability. Make sure to keep records of your donations and consult a crypto tax professional to understand the potential tax benefits of your charitable contributions.

Utilizing software and professional services: 

Managing cryptocurrency accounting and reporting can be complex. Cryptocurrency tax is especially complex when the accountant has very little or no knowledge of crypto. Using cloud accounting specialized software or delegating the services to ACCA professional accountants with expertise in cryptocurrency can help you ensure compliance with regulations and minimize crypto tax liability. These services can assist with tracking transactions, calculating gains and losses, and preparing the necessary crypto tax filings for an individual or a business. 

At this juncture, we're excited to share that we are developing a software extension that will integrate with Xero, making crypto accounting and bookkeeping for your business even easier. This extension is currently in its Beta phase. We are inviting accountants to open an account with us and become beta testers for this innovative tool. Our extension has been specially designed for accounting professionals that are already familiar with managing Xero accounts. By participating, you can contribute to the development of a solution designed to streamline and simplify the process of cryptocurrency accounting. Join us in shaping the future of crypto accounting. Contact us now!

Audit in the Cryptocurrency Sphere:

Auditing plays a crucial role in the world of cryptocurrency, adding a layer of trust, transparency, and security to all transactions. In an industry where transactions are irreversible and potentially anonymous, an audit can provide necessary assurance to all parties involved.

In the realm of cryptocurrencies, an audit involves the examination of blockchain transactions to verify their accuracy, consistency, and credibility. The unchangeable nature of blockchain technology makes it an ideal platform for auditing because once a transaction is added to the blockchain, it cannot be deleted or modified in any way.

Auditing cryptocurrency transactions can be challenging due to the complexity and the newness of the technology. A crypto audit requires a deep understanding of blockchain technology, cryptographic algorithms, and smart contracts, along with traditional auditing principles.

Crypto-auditors, therefore, play an essential role in this landscape. They have the expertise to delve into the blockchain, analyze transaction patterns, investigate discrepancies, and identify potential fraud or manipulation. As a result, an effective crypto audit can provide stakeholders with confidence in the transparency and integrity of the transactions.

It's worth noting that as the regulatory environment around cryptocurrencies continues to evolve, the role of auditors will become increasingly significant. They will be on the frontline, ensuring that businesses dealing with cryptocurrencies adhere to established guidelines and maintain the highest standards of financial reporting and accountability.

Final Thoughts

In summary, cryptocurrency accounting in the UK is primarily based on the nature of transactions and the specific use of the cryptocurrency. Therefore, maintaining accurate records and understanding the cryptocurrency tax implications of transactions in the UK is crucial to ensure compliance with HMRC regulations. 

Navigating the complexities of cryptocurrency accounting in the UK requires a thorough understanding of the various cryptocurrency tax implications, regulatory requirements, and best practices for record-keeping. By staying informed, seeking professional advice, and utilizing appropriate tools and services, you can ensure compliance with HMRC regulations and optimize your tax planning for cryptocurrency transactions.


Who is the best crypto tax accountant UK?

Determining who the "best" crypto tax accountant in the UK is can be somewhat subjective and largely depends on your specific needs and circumstances.There are numerous reputable accounting firms and individual accountants throughout the UK who have developed a deep understanding of cryptocurrency and the associated tax implications. Some have even specialized in this area due to the growing demand for such services. Before you decide, consider conducting some research, ask for recommendations, and potentially conduct interviews with prospective accountants. Key questions to ask could include their experience with cryptocurrency, their understanding of the tax laws related to crypto, and how they stay updated with the ever-evolving landscape of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency regulations.

How is cryptocurrency taxed in the UK?

In the UK, the tax treatment of cryptocurrency depends on the nature and purpose of its use. If you buy and sell cryptocurrency as an investment, any profits may be subject to Capital Gains Tax (CGT). If you mine or trade cryptocurrency as a business activity, the profits may be subject to Income Tax and National Insurance contributions. VAT may also apply to transactions involving goods and services bought and sold using cryptocurrencies.

What is the 30-day rule in cryptocurrency?

The 30-day rule, also known as the 'bed and breakfasting rule', applies when you dispose of a cryptocurrency and then buy the same type of cryptocurrency within 30 days. For tax purposes, the cost of the repurchased cryptocurrency, not the original purchase price, is used to calculate any capital gains or losses.

What records do I need to keep for cryptocurrency transactions?

It's extremely important to keep detailed records of your cryptocurrency transactions for tax reporting. This includes the date and value of each transaction, whether it's a purchase, sale, trade, or mining income. Additionally, track the cost basis of each cryptocurrency you own to calculate gains or losses correctly. These records should be retained for at least six years, as required by HMRC.

Can losses on cryptocurrency transactions be claimed against tax in the UK?

Yes, if you incur a loss on the disposal of cryptocurrency, you may be able to claim loss relief against your other capital gains or carry the loss forward to offset future gains. It's important to report these losses to HMRC to claim the appropriate relief. As always, it's advisable to consult with a tax professional or accountant for specific advice tailored to your situation.

Disclaimer: The content provided on this website is for informational purposes only and does not constitute financial, tax, or accounting advice. This information is intended to be used as a general guide and is not meant to replace professional advice. You should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this site without seeking financial or other professional advice on the particular facts and circumstances at issue from an advisor licensed in your jurisdiction. We expressly disclaim all liability in respect to actions taken or not taken based on any or all the contents of this site. We encourage you to consult your personal financial advisor, tax consultant, or accountant before making any financial decisions.

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